Euphonium Valves – Three, Four, and Compensating Set Ups and Making Sense of Them All!


At one end, a musician buzzes their lips to create noise, which renders the device at the opposite end. Any tube (even ones for gardening as exhibited on YouTube) can produce wide spans. These intervals are dictated by the harmonic series, brass players generally call this the partial string. In order to seem the notes in-between the partial series, the celebrity needs to have ways to change the duration of the tube from the instrument. Many tools, like the trombone have a moveable slide, even while some others including euphoniums, baritones, trumpets, and french horns have valves to alter the quantity of tube that the air flows throughout.

A valve is a device on KP-LOK many tools that sends the airflow into a separate section of tubing before time for the key tubing. If there’s really a fourth valve, it is going to lower the pitch by 2 and a half steps (5 half steps).

The valve combination of 23 will be marginally sharp, the 13 combination will always be quite sharp, and the 1 2 3 combination will be very, very glowing.

Now you are probably wondering how device makers understand how much tubing to add so the pitch is lowered by half a step. Of course if you’re not, I am still going to describe it! Because of acoustical theory, to decrease the pitch by a half step, the working length of the instrument has to increase by approximately 1/15, or 6.67percent of the working span. For explanation purposes I will use a tool that’s 100 inches in span (that’s actually near length of a euphonium). This usually means the second valve should have a period of 100/15 or 6.67″ in order to reduce the pitch by half step. Currently, to lessen it a half step past that you must add 106.67/15 or 7.11″ and so that the very first valve must have a period of 6.67″+7.11″ approximately 13.77 inches. Today allow me to explain that last announcement as it might have thrown some of you away. The reason why the very first valve wouldn’t be only 2(6.67) is that so as to lessen the pitch with a whole measure, there needs to be enough tubing to decrease the pitch by a half measure (6.67″) and then enough tubing to lessen that pitch a half measure (7.11″). This exact same theory goes for its valve, and yields a length of 21.36 inches.

Thus valved tools are set up so that each valve, separately is in tune. Problems occur when performers must utilize valve combinations to correct the pitch by more than just three half steps. Because you can observe from the previous calculations, whenever you add a second half step, the working length must increase by greater than the previous growth. Together with the illustration of A100″ instrument, the valve increases the amount of 121.36″ to make an abysmal note three halfsteps below the original pitch. To lower the pitch a half measure beyond this note, 8.09″ of tubing is required. But as the 2 nd valve’s span is only 6.67″ this combination will probably soon be marginally sharp. This problem only compounds itself and in the 1-3 and 1 2 3 blends, the shortage between the true length and also the”in-tune” span is 2.94″ along with 5.04″ respectively. Because you can tell, this creates a huge problem, in reality, the 1 2 3 combination is about a fourth-step sharp!

The 4th valve solves some problems and adds others. The 4th valve adds 38.08 inches of tube when it comes to our 100″ tool. This can be a substitute for your own 1 3 combination as the 4th valve gets got the correct amount of tubing to become intune. Like wise the 4-2 combination produces a pitch more in tune than 1 2 3 because it simply lacks about 2.54 inches of tubing from the theoretical span. So this is excellent, now we’ve got every one the seven common combinations relatively in tune right? This is true, however, this 4th valve grants usage of an array which three-valve instruments can’t reach. We reach the curse of the 4th valve. While employing the 4th valve in combination with different valves to attain these low notes, the problem described above chemicals on it self even further. To lower the pitch an entire step after gloomy the 4th valve, 19.02″ must be added in addition to the amount of the 4th valve. Generally, the first valve would diminish the pitch with a whole step, however, remember the amount of the valve tube? 13.77 inches. Again, this issue substances as more valves are miserable. Using the 1-2-3-4 combination, which with all the half-step definitions of these valves, should offer a B natural a half step above pedal Bb. However, the length of tubing for a low B natural is just a whopping 203.38 inches! The combined amount of all four valves simply equates to 173.22 inches… ai only enough for a slightly sharp C! Thats right, that means that B natural is not possible (without lipping from the performer) on a non-compensating 4 valve euphonium.

Four Valve Compensating System

Therefore, how can we account for all this absence of tubing when a growing number of valves are depressed? The answer is that the compensating euphonium. Compensating euphoniums run air via a”double loop” if the 4th valve is miserable. What that means is that if air leaves the fourth valve slide, it actually reenters the valve block. On this second pass, there are smaller compensating loops which the air runs through, if the first, 2nd, or 3rd valve is miserable in combination with this 4th valve.

The beauty of this procedure is that, as the compensating loops are based on the fourth valve getting gloomy, the first five fingerings (1, 2, 3, 2-3, 4) remain unchanged since their intonation is acceptable. Nevertheless, since you descend further (2-4, 1-4, 3-4, 2 3 4, 1-3-4, 1-2-3-4) an extra compensating loop has been added to every valve. It brings the pitch of these fingering down to decent levels.

As an instance, to the non-compensating euphonium, a musician will need to play with a D below the team together with the fingering 2 3 4. A D in the middle register however is fingered together with 3. With the addition of the compensating loops, also a performer on the compensating euphonium plays AD below the team by simply adding the 4th valve to 3.

At this point, your brain is probably spinning. That’s OK because, as a celebrity, it’s not necessary to know why the compensating strategy works. That you do not need to be aware of the mathematical and acoustical theory behind that which happens whenever you press the 1st 3rd and 4th valves. A compensating euphonium does all the work for you. For a compensating euphonium, you usually do not have to change from conventional fingerings when playing below the staff.

Look at a skilled tuba for instance. All these tubas can have five, six, seven valves as a way to play with a low chromatic range! Don’t think me? Look a video up of Mnozil Brass around YouTube and pause it to some close up of their tubist. There are seven valves onto his tool! The simple fact is that compensating euphoniums provide a chromatic range with only four valves, whereas non-compensating tools could just achieve that accomplishment with the help of an excess valve or 2.

Keeping of this Fourth Valve

Take a look at a Yamaha YEP-321S, then search in a YEP-842. Form gold beams in the 842, the most obvious distinction is the placement of the 4th valve. The 321S has it’s 4th valve with the 3rd valve; this structure is also known as an inline arrangement. On the flip side, the 842 has it’s 4th valve to the ideal side, at about the mid point; this arrangement is also called a 3+1 structure. In the case of inline valves, then the 4th valve is controlled with the perfect pinky. Employing the 4th valve together with your best pinky may be problematic when you incorporate combinations including as 2-4 because of this absence of strength on your pinky. Therefore from a physiological point of view, a 3+1 process is usually easier to operate, particularly in fast passages.

All of these euphoniums are just 3 +1 (however, not all 3+1 euphoniums are compensating) which provides one extra benefit. Euphoniums are conical bore instruments, and thus the bore is increasing until it reaches at the end of the bell. The exclusion to that is at the valve slides (1-2-3 on each of horns and 1-2-3-4 on non-compensating four-valve instruments) where the bore stays steady. When moving the 4th valve farther down the horn, then the bore can expand while approaching the 4th valve. This excess expansion allows for a more overal conical design and offers a far more characteristic euphonium sound.

So Which Euphonium is Right for Me?

Most students will start a standard three-dimensional system. This makes the horn light weight, free-blowing, and doesn’t over complicate the horn. For newbies the three valve euphonium may be the best option, however as the musician develops they need to upgrade. Most high schools will buy four-valve”inline” non-compensating euphoniums for their students. A compensating euphonium costs more and will not yield any gap in such a thing except intonation in non register. If buying a personal euphonium, should you are aware that you’ll never require the compensating enroll, then there’s absolutely no need to pay the additional money for it. In terms of the placement of the valve placement, I’ve found that most people today prefer the 3+1 arrangement over inline. The 3+1 structure is only simpler and convenient to operate.

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